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Shortly after achieving independence from Britain in the early 1960s, Tanganyika and Zanzibar merged to form the nation of Tanzania in 1964. One-party rule ended in 1995 with the first democratic elections held in the country since the 1970s. Zanzibar's semi-autonomous status and popular opposition have led to two contentious elections since 1995, which the ruling party won despite international observers' claims of voting irregularities. The formation of a government of national unity between Zanzibar's two leading parties succeeded in minimizing electoral tension in 2010

Eastern Africa, bordering the Indian Ocean, between Kenya and Mozambique

Geographic coordinates:   
6 00 S, 35 00 E

Map references:    

total: 947,300 sq km
country comparison to the world: 31
land: 885,800 sq km
water: 61,500 sq km
note: includes the islands of Mafia, Pemba, and Zanzibar

Area - comparative:   
slightly larger than twice the size of California

Land boundaries:   
total: 3,861 km
border countries: Burundi 451 km, Democratic Republic of the Congo 459 km, Kenya 769 km, Malawi 475 km, Mozambique 756 km, Rwanda 217 km, Uganda 396 km, Zambia 338 km

1,424 km

Maritime claims:    
territorial sea: 12 nm
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm

varies from tropical along coast to temperate in highlands

plains along coast; central plateau; highlands in north, south

Elevation extremes:   
lowest point: Indian Ocean 0 m
highest point: Kilimanjaro 5,895 m

Natural resources:   
hydropower, tin, phosphates, iron ore, coal, diamonds, gemstones, gold, natural gas, nickel

Land use:   
arable land: 4.23%
permanent crops: 1.16%
other: 94.61% (2005)

Irrigated land:   
1,840 sq km (2008)

Total renewable water resources:   
91 cu km (2001)

Freshwater withdrawal (domestic/industrial/agricultural):   
total: 5.18 cu km/yr (10%/0%/89%)
per capita: 135 cu m/yr (2000)

Natural hazards:   
flooding on the central plateau during the rainy season; drought
volcanism: Tanzania experiences limited volcanic activity; Ol Doinyo Lengai (elev. 2,962 m) has emitted lava in recent years; other historically active volcanoes include Kieyo and Meru

Environment - current issues:   
soil degradation; deforestation; desertification; destruction of coral reefs threatens marine habitats; recent droughts affected marginal agriculture; wildlife threatened by illegal hunting and trade, especially for ivory

Environment - international agreements:   
party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements

Geography - note:   
Kilimanjaro is the highest point in Africa and one of only two mountains on the continent that has glaciers (the other is Mount Kenya); bordered by three of the largest lakes on the continent: Lake Victoria (the world's second-largest freshwater lake) in the north, Lake Tanganyika (the world's second deepest) in the west, and Lake Nyasa (Lake Malawi) in the southwest

Natural Resources:
gold, chromium, antimony, coal, iron ore, manganese, nickel, phosphates, tin, rare earth elements, uranium, gem diamonds, platinum, copper, vanadium, salt, natural gas

noun: Tanzanian(s)
adjective: Tanzanian

Ethnic groups
mainland - African 99% (of which 95% are Bantu consisting of more than 130 tribes), other 1% (consisting of Asian, European, and Arab); Zanzibar - Arab, African, mixed Arab and African

mainland - Christian 30%, Muslim 35%, indigenous beliefs 35%; Zanzibar - more than 99% Muslim.

43,601,796 (July 2012 est.)
country comparison to the world: 30
note: estimates for this country explicitly take into account the effects of excess mortality due to AIDS; this can result in lower life expectancy, higher infant mortality, higher death rates, lower population growth rates, and changes in the distribution of population by age and sex than would otherwise be expected

Age structure:   
0-14 years: 42% (male 9,003,152/female 8,949,061)
15-64 years: 55.1% (male 11,633,721/female 11,913,951)
65 years and over: 2.9% (male 538,290/female 708,445) (2011 est.)
Median age:   
total: 18.5 years
male: 18.2 years
female: 18.7 years (2011 est.)

Population growth rate:   
1.96% (2012 est.)
country comparison to the world: 55 
Education expenditures:   
6.8% of GDP (2008)
country comparison to the world: 17 

School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education):   
total: 9 years
male: 9 years
female: 9 years (2007)

Unemployment, youth ages 15-24:   
total: 8.8%
country comparison to the world: 111
male: 7.4%
female: 10.1% (2005

Kiswahili or Swahili (official), Kiunguja (name for Swahili in Zanzibar), English (official, primary language of commerce, administration, and higher education), Arabic (widely spoken in Zanzibar), many local languages
note: Kiswahili (Swahili) is the mother tongue of the Bantu people living in Zanzibar and nearby coastal Tanzania; although Kiswahili is Bantu in structure and origin, its vocabulary draws on a variety of sources including Arabic and English; it has become the lingua franca of central and eastern Africa; the first language of most people is one of the local languages.

definition: age 15 and over can read and write Kiswahili (Swahili), English, or Arabic
total population: 69.4%
male: 77.5%
female: 62.2% (2002 census)

School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education):   
total: 9 years
male: 9 years
female: 9 years (2007)

Unemployment, youth ages 15-24:   
total: 8.8%
country comparison to the world: 111
male: 7.4%
female: 10.1% (2005)

conventional long form: United Republic of Tanzania
conventional short form: Tanzania
local long form: Jamhuri ya Muungano wa Tanzania
local short form: Tanzania
former: United Republic of Tanganyika and Zanzibar

Government type:   

name: Dar es Salaam
geographic coordinates: 6 48 S, 39 17 E
time difference: UTC+3 (8 hours ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time)
note: legislative offices have been transferred to Dodoma, which is planned as the new national capital, and the National Assembly now meets there on a regular basis; the Executive Branch with all ministries and diplomatic representation remains located in Dar es Salaam

Administrative divisions:   
26 regions; Arusha, Dar es Salaam, Dodoma, Iringa, Kagera, Kigoma, Kilimanjaro, Lindi, Manyara, Mara, Mbeya, Morogoro, Mtwara, Mwanza, Pemba North, Pemba South, Pwani, Rukwa, Ruvuma, Shinyanga, Singida, Tabora, Tanga, Zanzibar Central/South, Zanzibar North, Zanzibar Urban/West

26 April 1964; Tanganyika became independent on 9 December 1961 (from UK-administered UN trusteeship); Zanzibar became independent on 19 December 1963 (from UK); Tanganyika united with Zanzibar on 26 April 1964 to form the United Republic of Tanganyika and Zanzibar; renamed United Republic of Tanzania on 29 October 1964
Legal system:   
English common law; judicial review of legislative acts limited to matters of interpretation

International law organization participation:   
has not submitted an ICJ jurisdiction declaration; accepts ICCt jurisdiction

18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:   
chief of state: President Jakaya KIKWETE (since 21 December 2005); Vice President Mohammed Gharib BILAL (since 6 November 2010); note - the president is both chief of state and head of government
head of government: President Jakaya KIKWETE (since 21 December 2005); Vice President Mohammed Gharib BILAL (since 6 November 2010)
note: Zanzibar elects a president who is head of government for matters internal to Zanzibar; Ali Mohamed SHEIN elected to that office on 31 October 2010, sworn in 3 November 2010
cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the president from among the members of the National Assembly
(For more information visit the World Leaders website )
elections: president and vice president elected on the same ballot by popular vote for five-year terms (eligible for a second term); election last held on 31 October 2010 (next to be held in 2015); prime minister appointed by the president
election results: Jakaya KIKWETE elected president; percent of vote - Jakaya KIKWETE 61.2%, Willibrod SLAA 26.3%, Ibrahim LIPUMBA 8.1%, other 4.4%

Legislative branch:   
unicameral National Assembly or Bunge (357 seats; 239 members elected by popular vote, 102 allocated to women nominated by the president, 5 to members of the Zanzibar House of Representatives; members serve five-year terms, up to 10 additional members appointed by the president, 1 seat reserved for the Attorney General); note - in addition to enacting laws that apply to the entire United Republic of Tanzania, the Assembly enacts laws that apply only to the mainland; Zanzibar has its own House of Representatives with jurisdiction exclusive to Zanzibar (the Zanzibar House of Representatives has 50 seats; members elected by universal suffrage to serve five-year terms)
elections: last held on 31 October 2010 (next to be held in 2015)
election results: National Assembly - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - CCM 259, CHADEMA 48, CUF 34, NCCR-M 4, other 7, Zanzibar representatives 5; Zanzibar House of Representatives - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - CCM 28, CUF 22

Judicial branch:   
Permanent Commission of Enquiry (official ombudsman); Court of Appeal (consists of a chief justice and four judges); High Court (consists of a Jaji Kiongozi and 29 judges appointed by the president; holds regular sessions in all regions); District Courts; Primary Courts (limited jurisdiction and appeals can be made to the higher courts)

Economy Overview
Tanzania is one of the world's poorest economies in terms of per capita income, however, Tanzania average 7% GDP growth per year between 2000 and 2008 on strong gold production and tourism. The economy depends heavily on agriculture, which accounts for more than one-quarter of GDP, provides 85% of exports, and employs about 80% of the work force. The World Bank, the IMF, and bilateral donors have provided funds to rehabilitate Tanzania's aging economic infrastructure, including rail and port infrastructure that are important trade links for inland countries. Recent banking reforms have helped increase private-sector growth and investment, and the government has increased spending on agriculture to 7% of its budget. Continued donor assistance and solid macroeconomic policies supported a positive growth rate, despite the world recession. In 2008, Tanzania received the world's largest Millennium Challenge Compact grant, worth $698 million. Dar es Salaam used fiscal stimulus and loosened monetary policy to ease the impact of the global recession. GDP growth in 2009-11 was a respectable 6% per year due to high gold prices and increased production.

Key Economic Indicators
GDP (purchasing power parity):   
$63.44 billion (2011 est.)
country comparison to the world: 85
$59.77 billion (2010 est.)
$56.1 billion (2009 est.)
note: data are in 2011 US dollars

GDP (official exchange rate):   
$23.2 billion (2011 est.)

GDP - real growth rate:   
6.1% (2011 est.)
country comparison to the world: 43
6.4% (2010 est.)
6.7% (2009 est.)

GDP - per capita (PPP):   
$1,500 (2011 est.)
country comparison to the world: 197
$1,400 (2010 est.)
$1,400 (2009 est.)
note: data are in 2011 US dollars

GDP - composition by sector:   
agriculture: 27.8%
industry: 24.2%
services: 48% (2011 est.)

Labor force:   
24.06 million (2011 est.)
country comparison to the world: 27 

Labor force - by occupation:   
agriculture: 80%
industry and services: 20% (2002 est.)

Unemployment rate:   

Population below poverty line:   
36% (2002 est.)

Household income or consumption by percentage share:   
lowest 10%: 2.8%
highest 10%: 29.6% (2007)

Distribution of family income - Gini index:   
37.6 (2007)
country comparison to the world: 79
34.6 (2000)

Investment (gross fixed):   
26.1% of GDP (2011 est.)
country comparison to the world: 55 

revenues: $4.949 billion
expenditures: $6.393 billion (2011 est.)

Taxes and other revenues:   
21.3% of GDP (2011 est.)
country comparison to the world: 149 

Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-):   
-6.2% of GDP (2011 est.)
country comparison to the world: 172 

Public debt:   
36.9% of GDP (2011 est.)
country comparison to the world: 82
34.4% of GDP (2010 est.)

Inflation rate (consumer prices):   
11.1% (2011 est.)
country comparison to the world: 196
7.2% (2010 est.)

Central bank discount rate:   
8.25% (31 December 2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 94
3.7% (31 December 2009 est.)

Commercial bank prime lending rate:   
18.1% (31 December 2011 est.)
country comparison to the world: 47
14.55% (31 December 2010 est.)

Telephones - main lines in use:   
174,500 (2010)
country comparison to the world: 129 

Telephones - mobile cellular:   
20.984 million (2010)
country comparison to the world: 41 

Telephone system:   
general assessment: telecommunications services are marginal; system operating below capacity and being modernized for better service; small aperture terminal (VSAT) system under construction
domestic: fixed-line telephone network inadequate with less than 1 connection per 100 persons; mobile-cellular service, aided by multiple providers, is increasing rapidly and, in 2010 reached a subscriber base of 50 telephones per 100 persons; trunk service provided by open-wire, microwave radio relay, tropospheric scatter, and fiber-optic cable; some links being made digital
international: country code - 255; satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (1 Indian Ocean, 1 Atlantic Ocean)

Broadcast media:   
a state-owned TV station and multiple privately-owned TV stations; state-owned national radio station supplemented by more than 40 privately-owned radio stations; transmissions of several international broadcasters are available (2007)

Internet country code:   

Internet hosts:   
24,182 (2010)
country comparison to the world: 107 

Internet users:   
678,000 (2009)
country comparison to the world: 111

Source: CIA World Factbook