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National Computer Board>Africa-Mozambique

Africa-Mozambique

Background
Almost five centuries as a Portuguese colony came to a close with independence in 1975. Large-scale emigration, economic dependence on South Africa, a severe drought, and a prolonged civil war hindered the country's development until the mid 1990s. The ruling Front for the Liberation of Mozambique (Frelimo) party formally abandoned Marxism in 1989, and a new constitution the following year provided for multiparty elections and a free market economy. A UN-negotiated peace agreement between Frelimo and rebel Mozambique National Resistance (Renamo) forces ended the fighting in 1992. In December 2004, Mozambique underwent a delicate transition as Joaquim CHISSANO stepped down after 18 years in office. His elected successor, Armando Emilio GUEBUZA, promised to continue the sound economic policies that have encouraged foreign investment. President GUEBUZA was reelected to a second term in October 2009. However, the elections were flawed by voter fraud, questionable disqualification of candidates, and Frelimo use of government resources during the campaign. As a result, Freedom House removed Mozambique from its list of electoral democracies.


Geography
Location:
Southeastern Africa, bordering the Mozambique Channel, between South Africa and Tanzania
Area:
total: 799,380 sq km
country comparison to the world: 35
land: 786,380 sq km
water: 13,000 sq km


Climate
tropical to subtropical
Natural Resources:
coal, titanium, natural gas, hydropower, tantalum, graphite


People
Population: 23,515,934 (July 2012 est.)
country comparison to the world: 50



Ethnic groups
African 99.66% (Makhuwa, Tsonga, Lomwe, Sena, and others), Europeans 0.06%, Euro-Africans 0.2%, Indians 0.08%.


Religions
Catholic 28.4%, Protestant 27.7% (Zionist Christian 15.5%, Evangelical Pentecostal 10.9%, Anglican 1.3%), Muslim 17.9%, other 7.2%, none 18.7% (2007 census) .


Languages
Emakhuwa 25.3%, Portuguese (official) 10.7%, Xichangana 10.3%, Cisena 7.5%, Elomwe 7%, Echuwabo 5.1%, other Mozambican languages 30.1%, other 4% (2007 census).


Literacy
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 47.8%
male: 63.5%
female: 32.7% (2003 est.)



Government
Government type: republic

Capital:
name: Maputo
geographic coordinates: 25 57 S, 32 35 E
time difference: UTC+2 (7 hours ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time)

Independence:
25 June 1975 (from Portugal)

Legal system:
mixed legal system of Portuguese civil law, Islamic law, and customary law

Executive branch:
chief of state: President Armando GUEBUZA (since 2 February 2005)
head of government: Prime Minister Aires Bonifacio ALI (since 16 January 2010)

cabinet: Cabinet
(For more information visit the World Leaders website)
elections: president elected by popular vote for a five-year term (eligible for three terms); election last held on 28 October 2009 (next to be held in 2014); prime minister appointed by the president

election results: Armando GUEBUZA reelected president; percent of vote - Armando GUEBUZA 76.3%, Afonso DHLAKAMA 14.9%, Daviz SIMANGO 8.8%

Legislative branch:
unicameral Assembly of the Republic or Assembleia da Republica (250 seats; members directly elected by popular vote to serve five-year terms)

elections: last held on 28 October 2009 (next to be held in 2014)

election results: percent of vote by party - FRELIMO 74.7%, RENAMO 17.7%, MDM 3.9%, other 3.7%; seats by party - FRELIMO 191, RENAMO 51, MDM 8

Judicial branch:
Supreme Court (the court of final appeal; some of its professional judges are appointed by the president, and some are elected by the Assembly); other courts include an Administrative Court, Constitutional Court, customs courts, maritime courts, courts marshal, labor courts


Economy Overview
At independence in 1975, Mozambique was one of the world's poorest countries. Socialist mismanagement and a brutal civil war from 1977-92 exacerbated the situation. In 1987, the government embarked on a series of macroeconomic reforms designed to stabilize the economy. These steps, combined with donor assistance and with political stability since the multi-party elections in 1994, have led to dramatic improvements in the country's growth rate. Fiscal reforms, including the introduction of a value-added tax and reform of the customs service, have improved the government's revenue collection abilities. In spite of these gains, Mozambique remains dependent upon foreign assistance for more than half of its annual budget, and in 2008 54% of the population remained below the poverty line. Subsistence agriculture continues to employ the vast majority of the country's work force and smallholder agricultural productivity and productivity growth is weak. A substantial trade imbalance persists although the opening of the Mozal aluminum smelter, the country's largest foreign investment project to date, has increased export earnings. At the end of 2007, and after years of negotiations, the government took over Portugal's majority share of the Cahora Bassa Hydroelectricity (HCB) company, a dam that was not transferred to Mozambique at independence because of the ensuing civil war and unpaid debts. More electrical power capacity is needed for additional investment projects in titanium extraction and processing and garment manufacturing that could further close the import/export gap. Mozambique's once substantial foreign debt has been reduced through forgiveness and rescheduling under the IMF's Heavily Indebted Poor Countries (HIPC) and Enhanced HIPC initiatives, and is now at a manageable level. In July 2007 the Millennium Challenge Corporation (MCC) signed a compact with Mozambique; the compact entered into force in September 2008 and will continue for five years. Compact projects will focus on improving sanitation, roads, agriculture, and the business regulation environment in an effort to spur economic growth in the four northern provinces of the country. Mozambique grew at an average annual rate of 9% in the decade up to 2007, one of Africa's strongest performances. However, heavy reliance on aluminum, which accounts for about one-third of exports, subjects the economy to volatile international prices. The sharp decline in aluminum prices during the global economic crisis lowered GDP growth by several percentage points. Despite 8.3% GDP growth in 2010, the increasing cost of living prompted citizens to riot in September 2010, after fuel, water, electricity, and bread price increases were announced. In an attempt to contain the cost of living, the government implemented subsidies, decreased taxes and tariffs, and instituted other fiscal measures. Real growth of 7.2% was achieved in 2011.


Key Economic Indicators
GDP – real growth rate:
7.2% (2011 est.)
country comparison to the world: 16
6.8% (2010 est.)
6.3% (2009 est.)
GDP – per capita (PPP):
$1,100 (2011 est.)
country comparison to the world: 209
$1,000 (2010 est.)
$1,000 (2009 est.)
note:data are in 2011 US dollars

GDP – composition by sector

agriculture: 28.4%
industry: 26.9%
services: 44.7% (2011 est.)

Labor force:
9.973 million (2011 est.)
country comparison to the world: 50

Budget:
revenues: $3.342 billion
expenditures: $3.986 billion (2011 est.)

Inflation rate (consumer prices):
11.7% (2011 est.)
country comparison to the world: 199
13% (2010 est.)

Agriculture – products:
cotton, cashew nuts, sugarcane, tea, cassava (tapioca), corn, coconuts, sisal, citrus and tropical fruits, potatoes, sunflowers; beef, poultry
Industries:
food, beverages, chemicals (fertilizer, soap, paints), aluminum, petroleum products, textiles, cement, glass, asbestos, tobacco

Exports:
$2.646 billion (2011 est.)
country comparison to the world: 131
$2.243 billion (2010 est.)

Exports – commodities:
aluminum, prawns, cashews, cotton, sugar, citrus, timber; bulk electricity

Imports:
$3.846 billion (2011 est.)
country comparison to the world: 134
$3.335 billion (2010 est.)

Imports – commodities:
machinery and equipment, vehicles, fuel, chemicals, metal products, foodstuffs, textiles

Imports – Partners
South Africa 28.6%, China 10.3%, Australia 7.2%, India 5.8%, US 4.7%, Portugal 4.1% (2010)

Exchange rates:
meticais (MZM) per US dollar -
28.5 (2011 est.)
33.97 (2010 est.)
26.28 (2009)
24.125 (2008)
26.264 (2007)

Communications
Telephones – main lines in use
88,100 (2010)
country comparison to the world: 149

Telephones – mobile cellular:
7.224 million (2010)
country comparison to the world: 87

Telephone system:
general assessment: a fair telecommunications system that is shackled with a heavy state presence, lack of competition, and high operating costs and charges
domestic: stagnation in the fixed-line network contrasts with rapid growth in the mobile-cellular network; mobile-cellular coverage now includes all the main cities and key roads, including those from Maputo to the South African and Swaziland borders, the national highway through Gaza and Inhambane provinces, the Beira corridor, and from Nampula to Nacala; extremely low fixed-line teledensity; despite significant growth in mobile-cellular services, teledensity remains low at about 35 per 100 persons
international: country code - 258; satellite earth stations - 5 Intelsat (2 Atlantic Ocean and 3 Indian Ocean); landing point for the SEACOM fiber-optic cable

Internet country code: .mz

Internet hosts: 21,172 (2010)
country comparison to the world: 109

Internet Users: 613,600 (2009)
country comparison to the world: 113


Source: CIA World Factbook